作者:Pam Marrone, Marrone生物创新公司创始人兼首席执行官

可持续农业1 | MBI无论我到世界各地旅行,无论是在中国、危地马拉、巴西、欧洲还是美国.S., 消费者, 尤其是年轻人, 希望获得更多关于bte365官网在线投种植和粮食生产的信息和透明度. 食品公司正在注意到这种环境, “从田地到市场或从农场到餐桌”等努力正在定义什么是可持续农业. Conventional farmers are also beginning to adopt “healthy soil” initiatives that have been the basis for organic farming, 哪个类别的食品继续是增长最快的.

据估计,到2050年,世界人口将从70亿增加到100亿, finding new methods to grow more food on less land in a sustainable manner is more important now than at any other point in history. 因此, farmers need effective and environmentally sustainable solutions to protect against losses caused by pests and crop diseases, 提高粮食产量, 保持质量, 喂养一个正在成长的, 越来越food-conscious的世界. 现在化学杀虫剂占主导地位, 但增长最快的bte365官网在线投投入类别是“生物制品”,更具体地说,是“生物农药”.” These are becoming essential tools in the growers’ toolboxes by promoting plant health and controlling unwanted pests and diseases, 哪种方法能够在减少环境影响的同时提高产量,同时提高种植者的利润.
大型农化公司现在认识到,并不是所有的问题都可以用化学农药解决, 这就是为什么他们中的许多人投资于生物制品, 要么通过收购,要么通过合伙.

由自然产生的生物可降解物质制成, 如微生物, 植物提取物, 脂肪酸或信息素, biologicals for crop protection also can play a significant role in helping growers meet consumer demands. 他们解决了农药残留等问题, 工人的安全, 对野生动物和传粉者的毒性, 空气污染, 以及地表和地下水污染. Biologicals for crop protection are well regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency within the Biopesticide, 污染及预防科. 自然界中并非所有的东西都是安全的, 所以环保局有一个程序来确保只有最低风险的产品才能被批准为生物农药.

根据美国bte365官网在线投生命组织的说法, 将一种新的化学农药推向市场需要10-12年的时间和近3亿美元的投资. The pipeline of new chemical pesticide active ingredients from the large agrichemical companies is small, 以新颖的方式工作的新化学物质很少被开发出来. 与此同时,世界各地的监管机构都在限制使用旧的化学杀虫剂. 最近, Canada 和欧洲 banned certain chemical insecticides in the “neonic” class due to their effects on 传粉者 such as bees that are needed to grow many crops. 与此形成鲜明对比的是, 每年都有许多新的生物农药活性成分被商业化, 不仅仅是在美国.S., 哪个国家拥有最完善的生物农药注册程序, providing a good opportunity to fill the pest management gap caused by the dearth of new chemical options coming on the market.

那么,是什么导致了全球更快的增长速度和越来越多的生物农药的使用? 它们提供了几个关键的好处:
1. 提高综合项目的产量和质量 – While biopesticide developers have seen many trials and farmer demos showing that their products and others’ biopesticides can perform as well as chemical pesticides on their own–particularly when measuring marketable yields–biopesticides are best used when incorporated into programs. Farmers rarely use anything stand-alone and typically mix and rotate a variety of pest management tools. They alternate products from spray-to-spray and often mix more than one product together in the spray tank. Farmers do this to get better results and to delay or stop the development of pest resistance (see #2 below). Because of the unique way that biologicals work–known as their “modes of action”–we often see that 1+1=3 instead of 2, meaning that combinations of chemicals and biologicals result in higher yields and better quality compared to chemical-only programs. 例如, 标记(一种巨大的紫菀的提取物), 在低应用速率下使用, consistently yields five bushels per acre more 玉米 and two to three more bushels per acre in soybeans. 喝咖啡锈病, 在所有的咖啡种植区,哪个问题越来越严重, 危地马拉的一个种植者用化学杀菌剂旋转了标记®, 从而产生更多的咖啡浆果,同时增加咖啡豆酚, 可能会产生更美味的咖啡.

用来控制脐橙虫等害虫, 哪个正在对化学杀虫剂产生抗药性, 微生物杀虫剂的使用提高了杏仁的产量, 为种植者创造了20倍的投资回报率. 它还可能减少或消除使用有争议的化学品, 比如越来越受限制的杀虫剂毒死蜱, 在柑橘, 咖啡, 玉米, 小红莓和苹果. 其他生物农药益处的例子包括更大的, 健康的香蕉树, 草莓和水稻产量提高, 含糖量较高的甘蔗, 更大的(优质的)土豆和西红柿, 苜蓿吨位更高. 体重越大,总可消化养分含量也就越高, 哪个对动物饲料很重要. These biopesticide-driven results and benefits mean more money in farmers’ pockets as the return on investment is 2-10x greater, 视bte365官网在线投而定.

最近, biologicals have been a breakthrough 技术 in seed coatings (or “seed treatments”) to protect crops at planting time from destructive insects, 线虫(以植物根为食的蛔虫)和疾病. 生物和化学堆积的种膜现在广泛应用于玉米, 大豆和棉花, 并由拜耳销售, 先正达公司和其他人. 一个产品, 基于一种能阻止昆虫和线虫的新细菌, 现在已经在商业上使用化学物质作为种子处理, 显示增加的产量等于, 而且通常比, 玉米纯化学种子处理, 棉花, 和大豆. 两种杀虫细菌和一种有益细菌堆叠在一起, yield enhancing fungus from Israel created an all-biological seed treatment that performed as well as or better than the all-chemical or chemical-bio in increasing yields of 玉米 和大豆.

2. 阻力管理 -当今大多数化学农药都是单一作用部位, 攻击害虫的一个脆弱的代谢途径, 杂草或植物病原体. 因此, 在反复使用化学杀虫剂之后, 害虫很快就会对这种产品产生抗药性. 当抗药性发生时,杀虫剂的作用就不像预期的那样. 生物农药具有独特的特点, 复杂和, 有时, 多作用模式, 这意味着害虫和植物致病病原体不太可能对它们产生抗性. 像这样, 生物农药可以延长化学产品的使用寿命时,在旋转或罐混合使用. 最近针对玉米根虫进行的田间试验就是一个例子, 最具经济破坏性的玉米害虫之一, 在那些对玉米有抗性的地方,通过改造来控制这些害虫. 我们的细菌的新作用模式, 在播种时犁沟, 或者作为种子处理, 结果表明,bt玉米对根虫的控制效果较好,而bt玉米自身无法控制根虫.

3. 管理残留 – Pesticide residues (MRLs – maximum residue levels) are regulated by individual countries and via global rules (the Codex Alimentarius, 或法典), 但是买家, 包括零售超市和品牌水果公司, 都把自己的, 通常对化学残留物有更严格的限制,定期规定无可测量的农药残留. 生物农药, 由于它们对消费者的风险一般较低, 是否免除残留耐受性(收获时允许在bte365官网在线投上使用的化学物质的数量)和, 像这样, 能用来收获吗. 当虫害或植物病害在收获季节出现时, 如果残留物持续存在或买方不允许使用化学品,则不允许使用化学品. Using a biopesticide for those last sprays provides the reassurance of crop protection and ability to export without rejection by a buyer. I have received harried phone calls from customers lining up boat or air shipments of their grapes or strawberries, 然后突然下雨了. 生物农药可能会阻止腐烂病/灰霉病的感染.

4. 安全性和生物降解性 – 生物农药 generally affect only the target pests or plant pathogens and pose little to no risk to birds, 鱼, 有益的昆虫, 传粉者, 哺乳动物和其他非目标生物. 它们对工人的风险也很小, 类似于自然产生的化合物和易于生物降解的产物, 不污染空气和水. Most biopesticides can be applied with the lowest level of PPE (personal protection equipment such as gloves and masks) and typically do not require special permitting and large buffer zones (prohibited use areas) around homes, 学校, 公共空间和水体.

5. 劳动力的灵活性 -生物农药的返工时间短, 一般4个小时, 与许多化学杀虫剂不同的是,它们的再进入间隔是几天到几周. 在今天劳动力紧张的农业环境下, farmers can increase worker and grower productivity and reduce labor costs by allowing faster re-entry times when using biopesticides. 这使得在早上喷洒喷雾和做其他事情成为可能, 比如收割或修剪, 在同一天.

6. 大多数生物农药可用于有机生产. 因为生物农药被归类为“有机”产品,所以我把它放在最后. 今天, 消费者对有机食品的需求超过了供给, 有机食品仍然是美国增长最快的食品领域.S. 和欧洲. 目前,有机玉米和大豆种植面积不足,无法满足这一需求, 而种植者通常可以通过有机商品每英亩赚更多的钱. Food companies and retailers are now initiating programs to support the transition of more farm acres to organic production. 然而,有机bte365官网在线投仍然只占整个农场面积的一小部分. Biopesticide industry firms sell to conventional growers that are using all the aforementioned benefits of biopesticides to optimize their operations. 生物农药, 作为害虫综合管理战略的一部分, 为所有种植者提供最大的灵活性,以满足不断变化的消费者需求.

The evolution of biologicals as an increasingly trusted and reliable tool in a grower’s toolbox that would not have been possible without advances in science, 技术, 和制造业. 这些进步大大提高了现有产品的性能, 配方, 易用性, 保质期和光谱. 在未来的几年里, the role of biopesticides will evolve from that of an additional tool for pest management and crop production to increasingly serving as the foundation of food, 饲料和纤维生产.

Dr. 帕梅拉·马罗内(Pamela Marrone)是位于加州戴维斯的马罗内生物创新公司的创始人兼首席执行官.