生物农药的市场价值在30亿到40亿美元之间, 占全球农药市场600多亿美元的5%到6%. The biopesticide compounded annual growth is projected at 15-20 percent compared to approximately 2 percent growth for chemical pesticides. So, what is causing the faster global growth rate and increased adoption of biopesticides?
A) Biochemical pesticides 含有控制害虫的天然物质. 生物化学物质包括碳酸氢钾这样的物质, phosphorous acids, some plant extracts, 干扰昆虫交配的信息素与植物油. 并不是所有的天然生物化学品都被规定为生物农药. 作为生化生物农药进行管制, the EPA requires the registrant to prove that the substance has a non-toxic mode of action to the pest or pathogen. For example, the insecticide products based on fermented spinosads and avermectins are regulated as chemical pesticides because they have a toxic mode of action to the pests.
B) Microbial pesticides contain microorganisms (dead or alive bacteria, insect viruses, fungi, actinomycetes, protozoa, etc.)，作为生物防治剂, 通过病原体产生的化合物直接或间接地影响病原体. The most well-known and biggest microbial biopesticide is Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which was commercialized more than 70 years ago and is still used on more than 2 million acres of vegetables.
So, again, what is causing the faster growth rate and increased adoption of biopesticides?
1. 生物农药提供了良好的投资回报, 在综合项目中，什么转化为更好的产量和质量.
The perception is, however, that biopesticides are only for organic crops and are not strong enough for conventional production. 是的，生物农药非常适合有机生产. However, 当生物农药被纳入常规项目时, their unique modes of action often result in higher yields and better quality compared to chemical-only programs. Farmers rarely use anything stand-alone and typically mix and rotate a variety of pest management tools. For example, a biofungicide comprised from an extract of giant knotweed controls plant diseases and increases yield and quality standalone, but also can enhance the crop yields and quality of conventional programs when combined with traditional fungicides. 一些例子包括更多和更大的土豆, greater tomato tonnage, 西瓜更大更甜，黄瓜多10%. In testing biopesticides, it is important to look beyond the number of lesions or pests on a plant (percent disease or pest control) and look at the yields and quality of the crop, 生物农药的优势在哪里. 一种来自一种新细菌的生物杀虫剂, Chromobacterium subtsugae, 在不到一分钟的时间内阻止害虫捕食, 减少产卵和孵化, 因此对整个害虫种群产生了根本性的影响. 在典型的48小时后观察死虫的试验中，可能无法捕捉到这一点.
Pesticide residues (MRLs – maximum residue levels) are regulated by individual countries and via global rules (the Codex Alimentarius, or Codex), but buyers, 包括零售超市和品牌食品公司, have imposed their own, often stricter, limits on chemical residues that may regularly dictate zero measurable pesticide residues to meet consumers demands. 由于它们对消费者的风险一般较低, Biopesticides are exempt from residue tolerances (the amount of chemical allowed on the crop at time of harvest) and, as such, 能用来收获吗.
3. Safety and biodegradability.
Biopesticides generally affect only the target pests or plant pathogens and pose little to no risk to birds, fish, beneficial insects, pollinators, 哺乳动物和其他非目标生物. They also pose minimal risk to workers, are readily biodegradable and do not pollute air and water. Most biopesticides can be applied with the lowest level of PPE (personal protection equipment such as gloves and masks) and typically do not require special permitting and large buffer zones (prohibited use areas) around homes, schools, 公共空间和水体. Regulators are increasingly restricting chemical pesticides that have effects on mammals or the environment. Biopesticides can be incorporated into growers’ programs that help growers maintain their pest management, 在遵守这些限制的同时.
4. Labor flexibility.
生物农药的回收时间很短, typically four hours, as opposed to many chemical pesticides that have re-entry intervals of several days to weeks. 在今天劳动力紧张的农业环境下, farmers can increase worker and grower productivity and reduce labor costs by taking advantage of faster re-entry times when using biopesticides. 这使得在早上喷洒喷雾和做其他事情成为可能, 比如收割或修剪, in the same day.
5. Resistance management -当今大多数化学农药都是单一作用部位, 攻击害虫的一个脆弱的代谢途径, weed or plant pathogen. Therefore, 在反复使用化学杀虫剂之后, 害虫很快就会对这种产品产生抗药性. 当抗药性发生时，杀虫剂的作用就不像预期的那样. 生物农药具有独特的特点, complex and, sometimes, multiple modes of action, which means that pests and plant disease-causing pathogens are unlikely to develop resistance to them. As such, biopesticides can extend the life of chemical products when used in rotation or in tank mixtures.
It costs approximately $300 million and takes 11-12 years for a chemical pesticide to reach the marketplace. As such, 一旦这些化学物质进入市场, 标签是完整的和大学研究人员, bte365官网在线投顾问和虫害控制顾问对它们很熟悉. Thousands of field trials on every conceivable crop have been conducted to fill out the label. To develop a biopesticide, 它的成本不到1,000万美元，不到5年就进入了市场. Because of that speed, there may be fewer than 250 trials on a handful of crops behind the product. 这是一种不同于化学农药的商业模式, but at the end of the day it offers growers more crop protection tools in their toolbox to more rapidly solve current and emerging pest management problems, 满足消费者和食品渠道对可持续性和透明度的需求.
Dr. Pamela Marrone is the founder and CEO Marrone Bio Innovations, based in Davis, California.